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Molecular Aspects of Heparanase Interaction with Heparan Sulfate, Heparin and Glycol Split Heparin.

Elli, Stefano; Guerrini, Marco.
Adv Exp Med Biol; 1221: 169-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274710
Heparanase is the principal enzyme that degrades heparan sulfate (HS) in both physiological (HS turnover) and pathological (tumor metastasis, inflammation) cell conditions, catalysing the hydrolysis of the ß-1-4 glycosidic bond in -GlcUA-ß(1-4)-GlcNX-. Despite efforts to define the minimum trisaccharide sequence that allows glycans to be recognized by heparanase, a rigorous "molecular code" by which the enzyme reads and degrades HS chains has not been identified. The X-ray diffraction model of heparanase, resolved by Wu et al (2015), revealed a complex between the trisaccharide GlcNS6S-GlcUA-GlcNS6S and heparanase. Efforts are ongoing to better understand how HS mimetics longer than three residues are recognized by heparanase before being hydrolyzed or inhibit the enzyme. It is also important to consider the flexibility of the enzyme active site, a feature that opens up the development of heparanase inhibitors with structures significantly different from HS or heparin. This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge about structural aspects of heparanase activities in terms of substrate recognition, mechanism of hydrolysis, and inhibition.
Selo DaSilva