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Pyridostigmine regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis to reduce myocardial vulnerability to injury in diabetic mice.

Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ming; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; He, Xi; Deng, Juan; Zang, Wei-Jin.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 317(2): E312-E326, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211620
Diabetic patients are more susceptible to myocardial ischemia damage than nondiabetic patients, with worse clinical outcomes and greater mortality. The mechanism may be related to glucose metabolism, mitochondrial homeostasis, and oxidative stress. Pyridostigmine may improve vagal activity to protect cardiac function in cardiovascular diseases. Researchers have not determined whether pyridostigmine regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis to reduce myocardial vulnerability to injury in diabetic mice. In the present study, autonomic imbalance, myocardial damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress were exacerbated in isoproterenol-stimulated diabetic mice, revealing the myocardial vulnerability of diabetic mice to injury compared with mice with diabetes or exposed to isoproterenol alone. Compared with normal mice, the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT)1/4 phosphofructokinase (PFK) FB3, and pyruvate kinase isoform (PKM) was decreased in diabetic mice, but increased in isoproterenol-stimulated normal mice. Following exposure to isoproterenol, the expression of (GLUT)1/4 phosphofructokinase (PFK) FB3, and PKM decreased in diabetic mice compared with normal mice. The downregulation of SIRT3/AMPK and IRS-1/Akt in isoproterenol-stimulated diabetic mice was exacerbated compared with that in diabetic mice or isoproterenol-stimulated normal mice. Pyridostigmine improved vagus activity, increased GLUT1/4, PFKFB3, and PKM expression, and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to reduce myocardial damage in isoproterenol-stimulated diabetic mice. Based on these results, it was found that pyridostigmine may reduce myocardial vulnerability to injury via the SIRT3/AMPK and IRS-1/Akt pathways in diabetic mice with isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage. This study may provide a potential therapeutic target for myocardial damage in diabetic patients.
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