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Population genomics identifies patterns of genetic diversity and selection in chicken.

Li, Diyan; Li, Yan; Li, Miao; Che, Tiandong; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Binlong; Zhou, Xuming; Zhang, Guolong; Gaur, Uma; Luo, Majing; Tian, Kai; He, Mengnan; He, Shen; Xu, Zhongxian; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Dai, Yifei; Xu, Huailiang; Hu, Yaodong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Yin, Huadong; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Rongjia; Yang, Chaowu; Du, Huarui; Jiang, Xiaosong; Zhu, Qing; Li, Mingzhou.
BMC Genomics; 20(1): 263, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940068

BACKGROUND:

There are hundreds of phenotypically distinguishable domestic chicken breeds or lines with highly specialized traits worldwide, which provide a unique opportunity to illustrate how selection shapes patterns of genetic variation. There are many local chicken breeds in China.

RESULTS:

Here, we provide a population genome landscape of genetic variations in 86 domestic chickens representing 10 phenotypically diverse breeds. Genome-wide analysis indicated that sex chromosomes have less genetic diversity and are under stronger selection than autosomes during domestication and local adaptation. We found an evidence of admixture between Tibetan chickens and other domestic population. We further identified strong signatures of selection affecting genomic regions that harbor genes underlying economic traits (typically related to feathers, skin color, growth, reproduction and aggressiveness) and local adaptation (to high altitude). By comparing the genomes of the Tibetan and lowland fowls, we identified genes associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens were mainly involved in energy metabolism, body size maintenance and available food sources.

CONCLUSIONS:

The work provides crucial insights into the distinct evolutionary scenarios occurring under artificial selection for agricultural production and under natural selection for success at high altitudes in chicken. Several genes were identified as candidates for chicken economic traits and other phenotypic traits.
Selo DaSilva