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The importance of anthropological methods in the diagnosis of rare diseases.

Rózdzynska-Swiatkowska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 32(4): 311-320, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917104
Most of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and rare endocrine-metabolic diseases (REMD) are rare diseases. According to the European Commission on Public Health, a rare disease is defined, based on its prevalence, as one affecting one in 2000 people. Many IEMs affect body stature, cause craniofacial abnormalities, and disturb the developmental process. Therefore, body proportion, dysmorphic characteristics, and morphological parameters must be assessed and closely monitored. This can be achieved only with the help of an anthropologist who has adequate tools. This is why the role of an anthropologist in collaboration with the physician in the diagnostic process is not to be underestimated. Clinical anthropologists contribute to assessing physical development and improve our understanding of the natural history of rare metabolic diseases. This paper presents anthropometric techniques and methods, such as analysis of demographic data, anthropometric parameters at birth, percentile charts, growth patterns, bioimpedance, somatometric profiles, craniofacial profiles, body proportion indices, and mathematical models of growth curves used in certain rare diseases. Contemporary anthropological methods play an important role in the diagnostic process of rare genetic diseases.
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