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Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage have abnormally high TGFß+ blood NK, NKT and T cells in the presence of abnormally low TGFß plasma levels.

Zhu, Li; Aly, Mostafa; Kuon, Ruben Jeremias; Toth, Bettina; Wang, Haihao; Karakizlis, Hristos; Weimer, Rolf; Morath, Christian; Ibrahim, Eman; Ekpoom, Naruemol; Opelz, Gerhard; Daniel, Volker.
BMC Immunol; 20(1): 10, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832584


Previously, we demonstrated up-regulated activated CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as up-regulated cytotoxic NK cells in the blood of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, we tried to identify deficiencies in counter-regulating immune mechanisms of these patients.


Cytokines were determined in NK cells and in plasma samples of 35 healthy controls, 33 patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, 34 patients with end stage renal disease, 10 transplant patients early and 37 transplant patients late post-transplant using flow-cytometry and luminex. In addition, cytokines were studied in supernatants of cell cultures with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in-vitro with tumor cell line K562.


Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage exhibited the highest absolute cell counts of circulating TGFß1+ NK, NKT and T lymphocytes and the lowest TGFß1 plasma levels of all study groups (for all p < 0.050). In-vitro, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage showed high spontaneous TGFß1 production that could not be further increased by stimulation with K562, indicating increased consumption of TGFß1 by activated cells in the cell culture. Moreover, patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage had abnormally high IL4+ as well as abnormally high IFNy+ NK cells (p < 0.010) but similar IL10+ NK cell numbers as female healthy controls and showed the lowest plasma levels of IL10, TGFß3, IL1RA, IL1ß, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL17, TNFα, GM-CSF, TPO and VEGF and the highest plasma levels of G-CSF, FGF-basic, CCL3 and CXCL5 as compared to female HC and female transplant recipients (for all p < 0.050).


Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage show an activated immune system that can hardly be stimulated further and cannot be efficiently down-regulated by up-regulated TGFß1+ and IL4+ NK, NKT and T lymphocytes which are present concomitantly in these patients. The strongly decreased TGFß and IL10 plasma levels indicate deficient down-regulation and reflect a dysbalance of the immune system in patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. These findings may be relevant for explaining the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.
Selo DaSilva