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Noninvasive ventilation versus oxygen therapy in patients with acute respiratory failure.

Frat, Jean-Pierre; Joly, Florent; Thille, Arnaud W.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol; 32(2): 150-155, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817387


High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFOT) is becoming an alternative to noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and standard oxygen in management of patients with acute respiratory failure.


Patients with de novo acute respiratory failure should be managed with HFOT rather than NIV. Indeed, the vast majority of patients with de novo respiratory failure meet the criteria for ARDS, and NIV does not seem protective, as patients generate overly high tidal volume that may worsen underlying lung injury. However, NIV remains the first-line oxygenation strategy in postoperative patients and those with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure when pH is equal to or below 7.35. During preoxygenation, NIV also seems to be more efficient than standard oxygen using valve-bag mask to prevent profound oxygen desaturation. In postoperative cardiothoracic patients, HFOT could be an alternative to NIV in the management of acute respiratory failure.


Recent recommendations for managing patients with acute respiratory failure have been established on the basis of studies comparing NIV with standard oxygen. Growing use of HFOT will lead to new studies comparing NIV versus HFOT in view of more precisely defining the appropriate indications for each treatment.
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