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Inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in primary and metastatic melanoma cells and the tumour microenvironment.

Gide, Tuba N; Allanson, Benjamin M; Menzies, Alexander M; Ferguson, Peter M; Madore, Jason; Saw, Robyn P M; Thompson, John F; Long, Georgina V; Wilmott, James S; Scolyer, Richard A.
Histopathology; 74(6): 817-828, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589949

AIMS:

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunomodulatory enzyme, facilitates immune escape by tumours and promotes tumour progression. IDO inhibitors with and without additional anti-PD-1 therapy have been evaluated in recent and ongoing melanoma clinical trials, but IDO expression in melanoma tumours, and therefore its potential role as a predictive biomarker remains unknown. This study sought to evaluate IDO expression in immunotherapy-naive metastatic melanoma patients in order to determine patterns of expression in corresponding primary melanomas, locoregional metastases and distant metastases.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Here, we evaluated IDO expression using immunohistochemistry in 99 melanoma tumour samples from 43 immunotherapy-naive patients with metastatic melanoma to determine patterns of expression in primary melanomas (n = 29), locoregional metastases (n = 36) and distant metastases (n = 34). Thirty-seven per cent of patients demonstrated tumour IDO expression in at least one specimen. Twelve of 35 patients (34%) with longitudinal specimens (i.e. two or more separate specimens from different disease stages in the same patient) displayed heterogeneous IDO staining between samples. Tumour IDO expression positively correlated with tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) score as well as the number of IDO-expressing mononuclear cells in the primary melanoma (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0011, respectively) and nodal metastases (P = 0.049 and P = 0.037, respectively), but not in distant metastases. Furthermore, tumour IDO expression correlated positively with PD-L1 expression by melanoma cells among all specimens (P = 0.0073).

CONCLUSIONS:

Therefore, while assessment of tumour IDO expression warrants evaluation in melanoma patient cohorts treated with IDO inhibitors dosed at levels proven to inhibit the target by pharmacodynamic assessment, its utility as a biomarker may be limited by intertumoral heterogeneity.
Selo DaSilva