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Towards improved control of inflammatory bowel disease.

Eberhardson, Michael; Hedin, Charlotte R H; Carlson, Marie; Tarnawski, Laura; Levine, Yaakov A; Olofsson, Peder S.
Scand J Immunol; 89(3): e12745, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582196
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by activation of both the innate and adaptive immune system in genetically susceptible individuals, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. The triggers that initiate and perpetuate this continuous inflammation are the subject of much speculation and research, although the central role of the intestinal microbiota is recognized, and is even a target for treatment in some circumstances. The mainstay of modern IBD treatment is suppression of the immune response towards as yet unspecified antigens, and conventional therapy includes corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), thiopurines and methotrexate. Reducing activity of specific mediators has proven efficacious, including adhesion molecules, such as the gut-homing integrin α4 ß7 expressed on the surface of circulating immune cells, and cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α). This has been achieved using biologic agents including monoclonal antibodies. Recent discoveries in immunology and neuroscience have revealed that signals in the peripheral nervous system regulate inflammation, including levels of TNF-α. The understanding of the mechanisms of the neuro-immune communication involved in inflammation control in the gut is evolving, but is as yet incomplete. Clinical studies using implanted vagus nerve stimulators for treatment of IBD show encouraging results. Accordingly, the neural reflex control of inflammation is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of IBD. Here, we review current therapeutic options and neural reflex control of gut immunity in the context of intestinal inflammation.
Selo DaSilva