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Effect of plasma exchange in acute respiratory failure due to Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Geri, Guillaume; Terrier, Benjamin; Heshmati, Farhad; Moussaoui, Hanafi; Massot, Julien; Mira, Jean-Paul; Mouthon, Luc; Pène, Frédéric.
Crit Care; 22(1): 328, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514337

BACKGROUND:

Acute respiratory failure related to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a typical presentation of small-vessel vasculitis that requires prompt multidisciplinary management. The primary treatment is based on immunosuppressive drugs, whereas urgent plasma exchange has been proposed in case of life-threatening complications. We addressed the course of respiratory failure in 12 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Observational retrospective case series performed in the medical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Paris, France. Consecutive patients with ANCA-associated DAH admitted to our ICU for acute respiratory failure and treated by plasmapheresis were included in the analysis. We evaluated the SpO2/FiO2 ratio and assessed the mechanical ventilation mode hourly for 7 days.

RESULTS:

Twelve patients were included. Five of them required invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients were treated by plasma exchange in addition to a combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. Oxygenation improved over the first 7 days following initiation of plasma exchange, as shown by a dramatic increase in the median SpO2/FiO2 ratio from 183 [interquartile 137-321] to 353 [239-432] (p = 0.003), along with a decrease in the level of ventilatory support. All but one patient survived.

CONCLUSIONS:

A multimodal induction regimen combining immunosuppressants and plasma exchange may rapidly reverse the respiratory dysfunction in ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH.
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