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Trouble de personnalité paranoïaque et infractions pénales. / [Paranoid personality disorder and criminal offense].

Bouthier, M; Mahé, V.
Encephale; 45(2): 162-168, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309614

BACKGROUND:

Currently, all of the studies that focus on the relationship between paranoia and criminal offenses exclusively concern subjects suffering from a delusional paranoid disorder. However, subjects with single paranoid personality disorder, without any associated delusional disorder, are not uncommon in forensic practice.

OBJECTIVES:

This study aims to describe the offenses committed by subjects suffering from a single paranoid personality disorder and to compare them with the offenses committed by the subjects affected by a paranoid delusional disorder associated with paranoid personality disorder. Our initial hypothesis is that both populations have a comparable criminological profile.

METHODS:

Based on a 17 year-long experience carried out in the framework of a forensic assessment, we have selected all subjects presenting a paranoid personality disorder, whether single or associated with paranoid delusional disorder. The selected individuals were divided into two groups according to whether they presented paranoid delusional disorder or not. The offenses were grouped into criminal categories. The alpha risk was fixed at 1%. Data analysis is done by SAS software version 9.4.

RESULTS:

In a sample of 106 subjects presenting a paranoid personality disorder, including 4 women and 102 men, we found 79 subjects with a single paranoid personality and 27 with an associated paranoid delusional disorder. The average age at the time of the offense was 41 for those with single personality disorders and 49 for those with paranoid delusional disorders. Both groups had forensic antecedents (41%, 11/27 of paranoid delusional disorder and 51%, 40/79 of single paranoid personality disorder). Psychiatric history was more frequent in the paranoid delusional disorder group (59%, 16/27) than in the single paranoid personality disorder group (13%, 10/79). History of addiction was comparable in terms of alcohol abuse (26% in both groups) and other substances (7.5%, 2/27 of paranoid delusional disorder and 9%, 7/79 of single paranoid personality disorder). Comparison of the two groups highlighted significant differences in the type of criminal offenses committed (Fisher's exact test P=0.0003, alpha risk <0.0001). The offenses committed by delusional authors essentially came down to verbal or physical violence, including homicide (44%, 12/27), and were usually focused on a designated persecutor. Sexual violence was rare. On the other hand, paranoid personality disorder was associated with a wider variety of offenses. Sexual offenses (including 28 rapes, 35%, 28/79) were thus almost as frequent as murder, and attempted murder (38%, 30/79). This diversity of committed offenses was found in their forensic antecedents. In these subjects, the logic of omnipotence may had over ruled the logic of revenge.

CONCLUSION:

We conducted a retrospective study on 106 subjects with paranoid personality disorder, including 27 subjects with associated paranoid delusional disorder. The comparison of the two groups demonstrated significant differences in offenses. Verbal and physical but non-sexual violence, committed in a delusional logic, was found among delusional subjects, while the forms of violence were more multiform in the single paranoid personality disorder group, frequently including sexual violence. This is, as far as we know, the first study describing the medico-legal acting-out of paranoid personalities. These results, which will need to be confirmed by future studies, point out the importance of the criminological risk that may be associated with paranoid personality disorder, without any associated delusional disorder.
Selo DaSilva