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Use of gentamicin-impregnated beads or sponges in the treatment of early acute periprosthetic joint infection: a propensity score analysis.

Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Löwik, Claudia A M; Knobben, Bas A S; Zijlstra, Wierd P; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Mithoe, Glen; Al Moujahid, Aziz; Kampinga, Greetje A; Jutte, Paul C.
J Antimicrob Chemother; 73(12): 3454-3459, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189006

OBJECTIVES:

Early acute periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) have failure rates ranging from 10% to 60%. We determined the efficacy of applying local gentamicin-impregnated beads and/or sponges during debridement in early PJI.

METHODS:

Patients with early acute PJI, defined as less than 21 days of symptoms and treated with DAIR within 90 days after index surgery, were retrospectively evaluated. Early failure was defined as PJI-related death, the need for implant removal or a second DAIR or antibiotic suppressive therapy owing to persistent signs of infection, all within 60 days after initial debridement. Overall failure was defined as implant removal at any timepoint during follow-up. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed to correct for confounding factors.

RESULTS:

A total of 386 patients were included. Local gentamicin was applied in 293 patients (75.9%) and was withheld in 93 patients (24.1%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the use of local gentamicin was independently associated with early failure (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.12-3.48). After propensity matching, early failure was 40.3% in the gentamicin group versus 26.0% in the control group (P = 0.06) and overall failure was 5.2% in the gentamicin group versus 2.6% in the control group (P = 0.40). These numbers remained when solely analysing the application of gentamicin-impregnated sponges.

CONCLUSIONS:

Even after propensity score matching, failure rates remained higher if local gentamicin-impregnated beads and/or sponges were administered in early acute PJI. Based on these results, their use should be discouraged.
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