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Effect of different rituximab regimens on B cell depletion and time to relapse in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

Hogan, Julien; Dossier, Claire; Kwon, Thérésa; Macher, Marie-Alice; Maisin, Anne; Couderc, Anne; Niel, Olivier; Baudouin, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges.
Pediatr Nephrol; 34(2): 253-259, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109447


Several studies have demonstrated that rituximab (RTX) improves relapse-free survival in patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, these studies used various RTX regimens and there are few data comparing these regimens in children with SDNS. In this retrospective study, we assessed the effect of three different initial RTX regimens on both time to B cell reconstitution and to first relapse.


Sixty-one SDNS patients receiving a first course of RTX were included. Group 1 received one injection of 100 mg/m2, group 2 received one injection of 375 mg/m2, and group 3 received two injections of 375 mg/m2 at day 0 and day 7. Time to B cell reconstitution and time to first relapse and respective risk factors were studied.


Median time to B cell reconstitution was 2.5 [1.8-3.5], 5.0 [3.9-6.0], and 6.6 [4.6-7.8] months in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. RTX regimen was associated with time to B cell reconstitution (HRs group 2 vs. 3, 4.07 [1.96-8.48]; group 1 vs. 3, 11.13 [4.04-30.67]). One-year relapse-free survival was 50% [58-77], 59% [42-76], and 72% [46-87] in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. RTX regimen was associated with risk of relapse (HRs group 2 vs. 3, 1.55 [0.51-4.65]; group 1 vs. 3, 4.98 [1.15-21.60]).


The initial dose of rituximab impacts time to B cell reconstitution and the probability of relapse. Risk of relapse is also associated with patient characteristics, suggesting that RTX regimen could be modified for each patient to balance efficacy, cost, and side effects.
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