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Identification of differential phosphorylation and sub-cellular localization of the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.

Park, Kyung Chan; Menezes, Sharleen V; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric J; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis; 1864(8): 2644-2663, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679718
The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), exhibits pleiotropic activity, inhibiting metastasis of various tumor-types, while being correlated with metastasis in others. Notably, NDRG1 phosphorylation and cleavage are associated with its function, although it is unclear if these modifications occur universally, or selectively, in different cancer cell-types and if it contributes to its pleiotropy. Considering the suggested DNA repair role of nuclear NDRG1, the effects of the above post-translational modifications on its nuclear localization was examined. Herein, the full-length (FL) and truncated (T) NDRG1 isoforms were detected using a C-terminus-directed antibody, while only the FL isoform was identified using an N-terminus-directed antibody. For the first time, we demonstrate that the expression of the NDRG1 FL and T forms occurs in all cancer cell-types examined, as does its phosphorylation (p-NDRG1) at Ser330 and Thr346. The FL isoform localized highly in the nucleus compared to the T isoform. Moreover, p-NDRG1 (Ser330) was also markedly localized in the nucleus, while p-NDRG1 (Thr346) was predominantly cytoplasmic in all cell-types. These results indicate the N-terminus region and phosphorylation at Ser330 could be crucial for NDRG1 nuclear localization and function. PTEN silencing indicated that p-NDRG1 (Thr346) could be regulated differentially in different tumor cell-types, indicating PTEN may be involved in the mechanism(s) underlying the pleiotropic activity of NDRG1. Finally, therapeutics of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone class increased nuclear NDRG1 isoforms (FL and T) detected by the C-terminus-directed antibody in HepG2 cells, while having no significant effect in PC3 cells, indicating differential activity depending on the cell-type.
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