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Polyamine Metabolism and Oxidative Protein Folding in the ER as ROS-Producing Systems Neglected in Virology.

Smirnova, Olga A; Bartosch, Birke; Zakirova, Natalia F; Kochetkov, Sergey N; Ivanov, Alexander V.
Int J Mol Sci; 19(4)2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673197
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in various cell compartments by an array of enzymes and processes. An excess of ROS production can be hazardous for normal cell functioning, whereas at normal levels, ROS act as vital regulators of many signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. ROS production is affected by a wide range of viruses. However, to date, the impact of viral infections has been studied only in respect to selected ROS-generating enzymes. The role of several ROS-generating and -scavenging enzymes or cellular systems in viral infections has never been addressed. In this review, we focus on the roles of biogenic polyamines and oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and their interplay with viruses. Polyamines act as ROS scavengers, however, their catabolism is accompanied by H2O2 production. Hydrogen peroxide is also produced during oxidative protein folding, with ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) being a major source of oxidative equivalents. In addition, Ero1 controls Ca2+ efflux from the ER in response to e.g., ER stress. Here, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on the physiological roles of biogenic polyamines and the role of Ero1 at the ER, and present available data on their interplay with viral infections.
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