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Surface contamination of counting tools after mock dispensing of cyclophosphamide in a simulated outpatient pharmacy.

Chaffee, Bruce W; Lander, Michael J; Christen, Catherine; Redic, Kimberly A.
J Oncol Pharm Pract; 25(1): 85-93, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592766


The primary aim was to determine if dispensing of cyclophosphamide tablets resulted in accumulated residue on pharmacy counting tools during a simulated outpatient dispensing process. Secondary objectives included determining if cyclophosphamide contamination exceeded a defined threshold level of 1 ng/cm2 and if a larger number of prescriptions dispensed resulted in increased contamination.


Mock prescriptions of 40 cyclophosphamide 50 mg tablets were counted on clean trays in three scenarios using a simulated outpatient pharmacy after assaying five cleaned trays as controls. The three scenarios consisted of five simulated dispensings of one, three, or six prescriptions dispensed per scenario. Wipe samples of trays and spatulas were collected and assayed for all trays, including the five clean trays used as controls. Contamination was defined as an assayed cyclophosphamide level at or above 0.001 ng/cm2 and levels above 1 ng/cm2 were considered sufficient to cause risk of human uptake. Mean contamination for each scenario was calculated and compared using one-way analysis of variance. P-values of < 0.05 implied significance.


Mean cyclophosphamide contamination on trays used to count one, three, and six cyclophosphamide prescriptions was 0.51 ± 0.10 (p=0.0003), 1.02 ± 0.10 (p < 0.0001), and 1.82 ± 0.10 ng/cm2 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Control trays did not show detectable cyclophosphamide contamination. Increasing the number of prescriptions dispensed from 1 to 3, 1 to 6, and 3 to 6 counts increased contamination by 0.51 ± 0.15 (p = 0.0140), 1.31 + 0.15 (p < 0.0001), and 0.80 ± 0.15 ng/cm2 (p = 0.0004), respectively.


Dispensing one or more prescriptions of 40 cyclophosphamide 50 mg tablets contaminates pharmacy counting tools, and an increased number of prescriptions dispensed correlates with increased level of contamination. Counting out three or more prescriptions leads to trays having contamination that surpasses the threshold at which worker exposure may be increased. Pharmacies should consider devoting a separate tray to cyclophosphamide tablets, as cross-contamination could occur with other drugs and the efficacy of decontamination methods is unclear. Employee exposure could be minimized with the use of personal protective equipment, environmental controls, and cleaning trays between uses. Future investigation should assess the extent of drug powder dispersion, the effects of various cleaning methods, and the potential extent of contamination with different oral cytotoxic drugs.
Selo DaSilva