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NTPDase activities: possible roles on Leishmania spp infectivity and virulence.

Paes-Vieira, Lisvane; Gomes-Vieira, André Luiz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto.
Cell Biol Int; 42(6): 670-682, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384228
Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) are enzymes that belong to the GDA1/CD39 protein superfamily. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP to the monophosphate form (AMP). Biochemical characterization of the nucleotidases/NTPDases from various types of cells, including those from plants, animals, and pathogenic organisms, has revealed the existence of several isoforms with different specificities with respect to divalent cations (magnesium, calcium, manganese, and zinc) and substrates. In mammals, the NTPDases play important roles in the regulation of thrombosis and inflammation. In parasites of the genus Leishmania, the causative agents of leishmaniasis, two NTPDase isoforms, termed NTPDase-1 and NTPDase-2 have been described. Independently of their cellular localization, whether cell-surface localized, secreted or targeted to other organelles, in some Leishmania species these NTPDases could be involved in parasite growth, infectivity, and virulence. Experimental evidence has suggested that the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP by parasite ecto-nucleotidases can down-modulate the host immune response. In this context, the present work provides an overview of recent works that show strong evidence not only of the involvement of the nucleotidases/NTPDases in Leishmania spp infectivity and virulence but also of the molecular mechanisms that lead to the success of the parasitic infection.
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