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Glycodendrimer Nanocarriers for Direct Delivery of Fludarabine Triphosphate to Leukemic Cells: Improved Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Fludarabine.

Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Jatczak-Pawlik, Izabela; Studzian, Maciej; Pulaski, Lukasz; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara.
Biomacromolecules; 19(2): 531-543, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323872
Fludarabine, a nucleoside analogue antimetabolite, has complicated pharmacokinetics requiring facilitated transmembrane transport and intracellular conversion to triphosphate nucleotide form (Ara-FATP), causing it to be susceptible to emergence of drug resistance. We are testing a promising strategy to improve its clinical efficacy by direct delivery of Ara-FATP utilizing a biocompatible glycodendrimer nanocarrier system. Here, we present results of a proof-of-concept experiment in several in vitro-cultured leukemic cell lines (CCRF, THP-1, U937) using noncovalent complexes of maltose-modified poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer and fludarabine triphosphate. We show that Ara-FATP has limited cytotoxic activity toward investigated cells relative to free nucleoside (Ara-FA), but complexation with the glycodendrimer (which does not otherwise influence cellular metabolism) drastically increases its toxicity. Moreover, we show that transport via hENT1 is a limiting step in Ara-FA toxicity, while complexation with dendrimer allows Ara-FATP to kill cells even in the presence of a hENT1 inhibitor. Thus, the use of glycodendrimers for drug delivery would allow us to circumvent naturally occurring drug resistance due to decreased transporter activity. Finally, we demonstrate that complex formation does not change the advantageous multifactorial intracellular pharmacodynamics of Ara-FATP, preserving its high capability to inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and induce apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. In comparison to other nucleoside analogue drugs, fludarabine is hereby demonstrated to be an optimal candidate for maltose glycodendrimer-mediated drug delivery in antileukemic therapy.
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