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Reduction of two histone marks, H3k9me3 and H3k27me3 by epidrug induces neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer.

Lee, Eunsohl; Wang, Jingcheng; Jung, Younghun; Cackowski, Frank C; Taichman, Russell S.
J Cell Biochem; 119(4): 3697-3705, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236331
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NE PCa) is an aggressive malignancy, often presenting with advanced metastasis. We previously reported that reduction of histone marks regulated by DNMT1 following epidrug (5-Azacitidine, 5-Aza) treatment controls induction of epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) and a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, which facilitates tumorigenesis in PCa cells. Here, we use the epidrug 5-Aza as a model for how histone marks may regulate the reprogramming of prostate adenocarcinoma into NE phenotypic cells. First, we observed that 5-Aza treatment of PCa cells in vitro induces a neuron-like phenotype. In addition, significant increases in the expression of the NE markers N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), enolase-2 (ENO2), and synaptophysin were observed. Critically, a high density of NE cells with synaptophysin expression was found in tumors generated by 5-Aza pretreatment of PCa cells. Importantly, induction of NE differentiation of PCa cells was associated with an enhancement of NDRG1 expression by reduction of two histone marks, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Further, more NDRG1 expression was detected in the subset of PCa cells with reduced expression of H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 in the tumors generated by 5-Aza pretreated PCa cells and critically, these biological differences are also observed in small cell carcinoma in advanced stage of human primary PCa tumors. Our results suggest that reduction of histone marks regulated by the epidrug 5-Aza may control induction of a NE phenotype, which facilitates PCa progression. These studies suggest a strong rationale for developing therapeutics, which target epigenetic regulation.
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