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Clinical course, therapeutic responses and outcomes in relapsing MOG antibody-associated demyelination.

Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Mohammad, Shekeeb; Tantsis, Esther; Nguyen, Tina Kim; Merheb, Vera; Fung, Victor S C; White, Owen Bruce; Broadley, Simon; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Vucic, Steve; Henderson, Andrew P D; Barnett, Michael Harry; Reddel, Stephen W; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 89(2): 127-137, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142145

OBJECTIVE:

We characterised the clinical course, treatment and outcomes in 59 patients with relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated demyelination.

METHODS:

We evaluated clinical phenotypes, annualised relapse rates (ARR) prior and on immunotherapy and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), in 218 demyelinating episodes from 33 paediatric and 26 adult patients.

RESULTS:

The most common initial presentation in the cohort was optic neuritis (ON) in 54% (bilateral (BON) 32%, unilateral (UON) 22%), followed by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (20%), which occurred exclusively in children. ON was the dominant phenotype (UON 35%, BON 19%) of all clinical episodes. 109/226 (48%) MRIs had no brain lesions. Patients were steroid responsive, but 70% of episodes treated with oral prednisone relapsed, particularly at doses <10 mg daily or within 2 months of cessation. Immunotherapy, including maintenance prednisone (P=0.0004), intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab and mycophenolate, all reduced median ARRs on-treatment. Treatment failure rates were lower in patients on maintenance steroids (5%) compared with non-steroidal maintenance immunotherapy (38%) (P=0.016). 58% of patients experienced residual disability (average follow-up 61 months, visual loss in 24%). Patients with ON were less likely to have sustained disability defined by a final EDSS of ≥2 (OR 0.15, P=0.032), while those who had any myelitis were more likely to have sustained residual deficits (OR 3.56, P=0.077).

CONCLUSION:

Relapsing MOG antibody-associated demyelination is strongly associated with ON across all age groups and ADEM in children. Patients are highly responsive to steroids, but vulnerable to relapse on steroid reduction and cessation.
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