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Engineering Glucose Responsiveness Into Insulin.

Kaarsholm, Niels C; Lin, Songnian; Yan, Lin; Kelly, Theresa; van Heek, Margaret; Mu, James; Wu, Margaret; Dai, Ge; Cui, Yan; Zhu, Yonghua; Carballo-Jane, Ester; Reddy, Vijay; Zafian, Peter; Huo, Pei; Shi, Shuai; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Ogawa, Aimie; Liu, Franklin; Souza, Sandra C; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Duffy, Joseph L; Erion, Mark; Nargund, Ravi P; Kelley, David E.
Diabetes; 67(2): 299-308, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097375
Insulin has a narrow therapeutic index, reflected in a small margin between a dose that achieves good glycemic control and one that causes hypoglycemia. Once injected, the clearance of exogenous insulin is invariant regardless of blood glucose, aggravating the potential to cause hypoglycemia. We sought to create a "smart" insulin, one that can alter insulin clearance and hence insulin action in response to blood glucose, mitigating risk for hypoglycemia. The approach added saccharide units to insulin to create insulin analogs with affinity for both the insulin receptor (IR) and mannose receptor C-type 1 (MR), which functions to clear endogenous mannosylated proteins, a principle used to endow insulin analogs with glucose responsivity. Iteration of these efforts culminated in the discovery of MK-2640, and its in vitro and in vivo preclinical properties are detailed in this report. In glucose clamp experiments conducted in healthy dogs, as plasma glucose was lowered stepwise from 280 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL, progressively more MK-2640 was cleared via MR, reducing by ∼30% its availability for binding to the IR. In dose escalations studies in diabetic minipigs, a higher therapeutic index for MK-2640 (threefold) was observed versus regular insulin (1.3-fold).
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