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Efficacy of Clarithromycin-Naproxen-Oseltamivir Combination in the Treatment of Patients Hospitalized for Influenza A(H3N2) Infection: An Open-label Randomized, Controlled, Phase IIb/III Trial.

Hung, Ivan F N; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Liu, Kevin S H; Tam, Anthony; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Li, Patrick; Wong, Tin-Lun; Zhang, Ricky; Cheung, Michael K S; Leung, William; Lau, Johnson Y N; Fok, Manson; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung.
Chest; 151(5): 1069-1080, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884765

BACKGROUND:

Influenza causes excessive hospitalizations and deaths. The study assessed the efficacy and safety of a clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir combination for treatment of serious influenza.

METHODS:

From February to April 2015, we conducted a prospective open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Adult patients hospitalized for A(H3N2) influenza were randomly assigned to a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500 mg, naproxen 200 mg, and oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir or to oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily without placebo for 5 days as a control method (1:1). The primary end point was 30-day mortality. The secondary end points were 90-day mortality, serial nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) virus titer, percentage of neuraminidase-inhibitor-resistant A(H3N2) virus (NIRV) quasispecies, pneumonia severity index (PSI), and duration of hospital stay.

RESULTS:

Among the 217 patients with influenza A(H3N2) enrolled, 107 were randomly assigned to the combination treatment. The median age was 80 years, and 53.5% were men. Adverse events were uncommon. Ten patients died during the 30-day follow-up. The combination treatment was associated with lower 30-day mortality (P = .01), less frequent high dependency unit admission (P = .009), and shorter hospital stay (P < .0001). The virus titer and PSI (days 1-3; P < .01) and the NPA specimens with NIRV quasispecies ≥ 5% (days 1-2; P < .01) were significantly lower in the combination treatment group. Multivariate analysis showed that combination treatment was the only independent factor associated with lower 30-day mortality (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.004-0.94; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS:

Combination treatment reduced both 30- and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Further study of the antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of this combination treatment of severe influenza is warranted.TRIAL REGISTRY: BioMed Central; No.: ISRCTN11273879 DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN11273879; URL: www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN11273879.
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