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Excellent T-cell reconstitution and survival depend on low ATG exposure after pediatric cord blood transplantation.

Admiraal, Rick; Lindemans, Caroline A; van Kesteren, Charlotte; Bierings, Marc B; Versluijs, A Birgitta; Nierkens, Stefan; Boelens, Jaap Jan.
Blood; 128(23): 2734-2741, 2016 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27702800
Successful immune reconstitution (IR) is associated with improved outcomes following pediatric cord blood transplantation (CBT). Usage and timing of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), introduced to the conditioning to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure, negatively influences T-cell IR. We studied the relationships among ATG exposure, IR, and clinical outcomes. All pediatric patients receiving a first CBT between 2004 and 2015 at the University Medical Center Utrecht were included. ATG-exposure measures were determined with a validated pharmacokinetics model. Main outcome of interest was early CD4+ IR, defined as CD4+ T-cell counts >50 × 106/L twice within 100 days after CBT. Other outcomes of interest included event-free survival (EFS). Cox proportional-hazard and Fine-Gray competing-risk models were used. A total of 137 patients, with a median age of 7.4 years (range, 0.2-22.7), were included, of whom 82% received ATG. Area under the curve (AUC) of ATG after infusion of the cord blood transplant predicted successful CD4+ IR. Adjusted probability on CD4+ IR was reduced by 26% for every 10-point increase in AUC after CBT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.974; P < .0001). The chance of EFS was higher in patients with successful CD4+ IR (HR, 0.26; P < .0001) and lower ATG exposure after CBT (HR, 1.005; P = .0071). This study stresses the importance of early CD4+ IR after CBT, which can be achieved by reducing the exposure to ATG after CBT. Individualized dosing of ATG to reach optimal exposure or, in selected patients, omission of ATG may contribute to improved outcomes in pediatric CBT.
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