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Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against a Diverse Range of Circulating Strains in Nicaragua.

Patel, Manish; Pedreira, Cristina; De Oliveira, Lúcia Helena; Tate, Jacqueline; Leshem, Eyal; Mercado, Juan; Umaña, Jazmina; Balmaceda, Angel; Reyes, Martha; Kerin, Tara; McDonald, Sharla; Gentsch, Jon; Bowen, Michael D; Parashar, Umesh.
Clin Infect Dis; 62 Suppl 2: S127-32, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059346

BACKGROUND:

Because >60 rotavirus strains have been reported worldwide, concerns exist about strain replacement after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, particularly in developing countries with diverse strains and lower efficacy.

METHODS:

We used the case-control design in 4 hospitals in Nicaragua to assess strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) against rotavirus diarrhea. Cases were identified through prospective strain surveillance with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for 3 years among children hospitalized for diarrhea, and controls were children negative for rotavirus.

RESULTS:

We enrolled 1178 case-patients, 1082 (92%) with G and P typing, and 4927 controls. A different strain predominated each year with increasing age of the vaccine-eligible cohort during the study period G2P[4] in 2008 (97%; mean age, 11.9 months), G1P[8] in 2009 (55%; mean age, 17.0 months), and G3P[8] in 2010 (78%; mean age, 17.3 months). Overall VE was 45% (95% confidence interval, 25%-59%). Regardless of the strain, VE estimates were 12%-79% lower among children aged ≥12 months relative to those 6-11 months of age. The lower VE for G3P[8] was related to the higher mean age of cases (17.3 months) compared with the G2P[4] strains (11.9 months), with a significant trend (R(2)= 0.819;P< .001) of declining effectiveness with increasing mean age of the cases.

CONCLUSIONS:

Introduction of RotaTeq did not result in sustained emergence of any particular strain in Nicaragua. Variation in strain-specific effectiveness was due to an age-related decline in effectiveness rather than differences in protection against the observed strains.
Selo DaSilva