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Diagnosis of blood culture-negative endocarditis and clinical comparison between blood culture-negative and blood culture-positive cases.

Lamas, Cristiane C; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Zappa, Monica; Brandão, Tatiana J D; Januário-da-Silva, Carolina A; Correia, Marcelo G; Barbosa, Giovanna Ianini F; Golebiovski, Wilma F; Weksler, Clara; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier.
Infection; 44(4): 459-66, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26670038

PURPOSE:

To analyze the clinical characteristics of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) and how it compares to those of blood culture-positive endocarditis (BCPE) cases and show how molecular tools helped establish the etiology in BCNE.

METHODS:

Adult patients with definite infective endocarditis (IE) and having valve surgery were included. Valves were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical analysis compared BCNE and BCPE.

RESULTS:

One hundred and thirty-one patients were included; 53 (40 %) had BCNE. The mean age was 45 ± 16 years; 33 (62 %) were male. BCNE was community-acquired in 41 (79 %). Most patients were referred from other hospitals (38, 73 %). Presentation was subacute in 34 (65 %), with fever in 47/53 (90 %) and a new regurgitant murmur in 34/42 (81 %). Native valves were affected in 74 %, mostly left-sided. All echocardiograms showed major criteria for IE. Antibiotics were used prior to BC collection in 31/42 (74 %). Definite histological diagnosis was established for 35/50 (70 %) valves. PCR showed oralis group streptococci in 21 (54 %), S. aureus in 3 (7.7 %), gallolyticus group streptococci in 2 (5.1 %), Coxiella burnetii in 1 (2.5 %) and Rhizobium sp. in 1 (2.5 %). In-hospital mortality was 9/53 (17 %). Fever (p = 0.06, OR 4.7, CI 0.91-24.38) and embolic complications (p = 0.003, OR 3.3, CI 1.55-6.82) were more frequent in BCPE cases, while new acute regurgitation (p = 0.05, OR 0.3, CI 0.098-0.996) and heart failure (p = 0.02, OR 0.3, CI 0.13-0.79) were less so.

CONCLUSIONS:

BCNE resulted mostly from prior antibiotics and was associated with severe hemodynamic compromise. Valve histopathology and PCR were useful in confirming the diagnosis and pointing to the etiology of BCNE.
Selo DaSilva