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Risk Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Mediterranean-Basin Population: The PAMDI (Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Italy) Study--Report 2.

Piermarocchi, Stefano; Tognetto, Daniele; Piermarocchi, Rita; Masetto, Morena; Monterosso, Gianluca; Segato, Tatiana; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Turrini, Aida; Peto, Tunde.
Ophthalmic Res; 55(3): 111-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666641


To investigate the association of diet and other modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in rural and urban communities of a Mediterranean population in the northeast of Italy.


A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among subjects aged over 60 years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the consumption of different food categories, i.e., protective (P), risky (R), lutein-rich (L) and neutral (N). Smoking habit and alcohol intake were also examined. Macular pigment was measured by Raman spectroscopy.


P food intake reduced the risk of large drusen (ARM2; OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.96) within the rural community. In this sub-group, R foods resulted in a slight association with large drusen, though the R/P food ratio was highly correlated with ARM2 (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31). Raman measures showed an age-dependent decrease but did not correlate with lutein intake. Smoking habit showed a positive association with ARM2 among women (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.54-3.75), whereas alcohol consumption resulted in protective odds (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.86).


FFQ analysis confirmed the role of P and R foods and the benefit of a Mediterranean diet in ARMD. Moderate alcohol consumption showed a beneficial effect, whereas the deleterious role of a smoking habit was more evident in females.
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