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Understanding the major risk factors in the beginning and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis: current scenario and future prospects.

Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Sobha, Kota.
Inflamm Res; 64(9): 647-59, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26149692
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic progressive inflammatory autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic pain and swelling primarily, affects the peripheral joints. RA had attained global concern in the last few decades, affecting more than 1.5 % of the world's population with higher female percentage than male. In the advanced stage, the disease is associated with the destruction of cartilage and bone along with a variety of systemic manifestations leading to functional disability. Inadequate early/preliminary diagnosis and non-specific therapeutics are the major challenges in the management of RA. Till date, the exact cause(s) of the disease remain(s) obscure, and several genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are associated with the beginning and the progression of the disease. Rheumatoid factor is the only clinically approved bio-marker for the diagnosis, and RA is not restricted to bones, but also affects several vital organs in the advanced stages. Genome-wide association studies have explored novel genetic loci underlying common autoimmune diseases including RA. Recent discoveries of risk alleles have made it possible to define genetic risk profiles of patients with RA. The conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroidal drugs are still the choice for the treatment of RA under acute and chronic pathological conditions respectively. However, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs have shown remarkable success in the last decade. The present review provides a comprehensive understanding of the major risk factors and the molecular biology involved in the initiation and the progression of RA with a note on the recent trends in RA therapy.
Selo DaSilva