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Hypertension Prevalence, Cardiac Complications, and Antihypertensive Medication Use in Children.

Dobson, Craig P; Eide, Matilda; Nylund, Cade M.
J Pediatr; 167(1): 92-7.e1, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957976

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the prevalence of hypertension diagnosis in children of US military members and quantify echocardiography evaluations, cardiac complications, and antihypertensive prescriptions in the post-2004 guideline era. STUDY

DESIGN:

Using billing data from military health insurance (TRICARE) enrollees, hypertension cases were defined as 2 or more visits with a primary or unspecified hypertension diagnosis during any calendar year or 1 such visit if with a cardiologist or nephrologist.

RESULTS:

During 2006-2011, the database contained an average 1.3 million subjects aged 2-18 years per year. A total of 16 322 met the definition of hypertension (2.6/1000). The incidence of hypertension increased by 17% between 2006 and 2011 (from 2.3/1000 to 2.7/1000; P < .001). Hypertension was more common in adolescents aged 12-18 years than in younger children (5.4/1000 vs 0.9/1000). Among patients with hypertension, 5585 (34%) underwent echocardiography. The frequency of annual echocardiograms increased from 22.7% to 27.7% (P < .001). In patients with echocardiography, 8.0% had left ventricular hypertrophy or dysfunction. Among the patients with hypertension, 6353 (38.9%) received an antihypertensive medication.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of hypertension in children has increased. Compliance with national guidelines is poor. Of pediatric patients with hypertension who receive an echocardiogram, 1 in 12 had identified cardiac complications, supporting the current recommendations for echocardiography in children with hypertension. Less than one-half of children with hypertension are treated with medication.
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