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[When will the new tuberculosis vaccine appear?].

Koroliuk, A M; Zazimko, L A; Petrovskii, S V.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25842959
The problem of tuberculosis prophylaxis remains actual for many countries of the world including Russia. The search of candidates for substitution of the only authorized BCG vaccine has been ongoing for some time, because it does not prevent reactivation of the causative agent in the latent stage and causes generalized BCG-infection in individuals with pronounced immune deficiency. In October 2013 in Lille at the European Congress "World Vaccine 2013" results of multi-year projects and trials of around 40 novel tuberculosis vaccine candidates were presented. The article contains a critical analysis of the materials presented at the congress. 12 vaccines have been developed or are being developed for priming. Among those a live VPM 1002 vaccine based on a genetically modified BCG Mycobacterium bovis (HLY+rBCG) strain and an attenuated vaccine based on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (att. MTB-MTBVAC) have passed phase II clinical trials. 17 candidates are being examined as booster vaccines, among those 6 vaccines have passed phase II clinical trials, and are presented by both modified M. bovis strains and partial proteins of M. tuberculosis. Characteristics of the 3 most perspective vaccines have been presented at the congress VPM 1002, H &H56 and MVA85A. VPM 1002 is the vaccine closest to introduction. This is a live recombinant anti-tuberculosis vaccine based on the BCG strain, its DNA had genes partially deleted, that code synthesis of listeriolysin. The trials have shown that protective effectiveness of the vaccine is significantly higher than the parent BCG due to better induction of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, as well as IFN-γ, IL-18, 12 and other cytokines responsible for cell immunity function against M. tuberculosis.
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