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Deficiency of the B cell-activating factor receptor results in limited CD169+ macrophage function during viral infection.

Xu, Haifeng C; Huang, Jun; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Grusdat, Melanie; Shinde, Prashant; McIlwain, David R; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Gommerman, Jennifer; Löhning, Max; Ohashi, Pamela S; Mak, Tak W; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Speletas, Matthaios; Eibel, Hermann; Ware, Carl F; Tumanov, Alexei V; Kruglov, Andrey A; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A.
J Virol; 89(9): 4748-59, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25673724
UNLABELLED: The B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell development and humoral immunity in mice and humans. While the role of BAFF in B cells has been widely described, its role in innate immunity remains unknown. Using BAFF receptor (BAFFR)-deficient mice, we characterized BAFFR-related innate and adaptive immune functions following infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We identified a critical role for BAFFR signaling in the generation and maintenance of the CD169(+) macrophage compartment. Consequently, Baffr(-) (/) (-) mice exhibited limited induction of innate type I interferon production after viral infection. Lack of BAFFR signaling reduced virus amplification and presentation following viral infection, resulting in highly reduced antiviral adaptive immune responses. As a consequence, BAFFR-deficient mice showed exacerbated and fatal disease after viral infection. Mechanistically, transient lack of B cells in Baffr(-) (/) (-) animals resulted in limited lymphotoxin expression, which is critical for maintenance of CD169(+) cells. In conclusion, BAFFR signaling affects both innate and adaptive immune activation during viral infections. IMPORTANCE: Viruses cause acute and chronic infections in humans resulting in millions of deaths every year. Innate immunity is critical for the outcome of a viral infection. Innate type I interferon production can limit viral replication, while adaptive immune priming by innate immune cells induces pathogen-specific immunity with long-term protection. Here, we show that BAFFR deficiency not only perturbed B cells, but also resulted in limited CD169(+) macrophages. These macrophages are critical in amplifying viral particles to trigger type I interferon production and initiate adaptive immune priming. Consequently, BAFFR deficiency resulted in reduced enforced viral replication, limited type I interferon production, and reduced adaptive immunity compared to BAFFR-competent controls. As a result, BAFFR-deficient mice were predisposed to fatal viral infections. Thus, BAFFR expression is critical for innate immune activation and antiviral immunity.
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