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Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen typ 1 (NF1) - klinický obraz a molekulárne-genetická diagnostika. / [Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 (NF1) - clinical picture and molecular-genetics diagnostic].

Petrák, Borivoj; Bendová, Sárka; Lisý, Jirí; Kraus, Josef; Zatrapa, Tomás; Glombová, Marie; Zámecník, Josef.
Cesk Patol; 51(1): 34-40, 2015.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25671360
Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem, autosomal dominant hereditary neurocutaneous disease characterized by skin, central and peripheral nervous system , eyes , bone, endocrine, gastrointestinal and blood vessel wall involvement. It has an estimated frequency of 1 in 3000. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutations in the large NF1 gene located on chromosome 17q11.2, encoding the cytoplasmic protein neurofibromin. It is expressed in multiple cell types but is highly expressed in Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, astrocytes and leukocytes. Neurofibromin is known to act as a tumor suppressor via Ras-GTPase activation, which causes down-regulation of cellular signaling via the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Failure of this function is associated with a tendency to form tumors which are histologically hamartomas as well as benign tumors. Tumors of the central nervous system include low-grade gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas grade I), especially optic pathway gliomas. They are often clinically asymptomatic. Other intracranial tumors are in the brain stem and also elsewhere in the brain and spinal cord. Hydrocephalus may be a complication of NF1 gliomas or due to stenosis of the distal part of the aqueduct Silvii. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas or plexiform neurofibromas are localized in the peripheral nervous system. Plexiform neurofibromas have a significant lifetime risk of malignancy. The clinical diagnosis of NF1 is defined by diagnostic criteria. The NF1 diagnosis is satisfied when at least two of the seven conditions are met. The method of direct DNA analysis of large NF1 gene (61 exons) is available. The results of studies of genotype - phenotype established few correlations. But predicting the disease by finding mutations is not currently possible. NF1 exhibits a wide range of variability of expression and complete penetrance, even within the same family. About half of cases are new mutations. The treatment of patients with neurofibromatosis is symptomatic. Central nervous system symptomatic low-grade gliomas are most often treated with chemotherapy. For plexiform neurofibromas surgical removal is currently the only treatment option.
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