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Functional architecture of the CFTR chloride channel.

Linsdell, Paul.
Mol Membr Biol; 31(1): 1-16, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24341413
Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. CFTR is unique among ABC proteins in that it functions not as an active transporter but as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. As an ion channel, the function of the CFTR transmembrane channel pore that mediates Cl(-) movement has been studied in great detail. On the other hand, only low resolution structural data is available on the transmembrane parts of the protein. The structure of the channel pore has, however, been modeled on the known structure of active transporter ABC proteins. Currently, significant barriers exist to building a unified view of CFTR pore structure and function. Reconciling functional data on the channel with indirect structural data based on other proteins with very different transport functions and substrates has proven problematic. This review summarizes current structural and functional models of the CFTR Cl(-) channel pore, including a comprehensive review of previous electrophysiological investigations of channel structure and function. In addition, functional data on the three-dimensional arrangement of pore-lining helices, as well as contemporary hypotheses concerning conformational changes in the pore that occur during channel opening and closing, are discussed. Important similarities and differences between different models of the pore highlight current gaps in our knowledge of CFTR structure and function. In order to fill these gaps, structural and functional models of the membrane-spanning pore need to become better integrated.
Selo DaSilva