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Functional genetic analysis of the GarML gene cluster in Lactococcus garvieae DCC43 gives new insights into circular bacteriocin biosynthesis.

Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B.
J Bacteriol; 196(5): 911-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24336941
Garvicin ML (GarML) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus garvieae DCC43. The recently published draft genome of this strain allowed determination of the genetic background for bacteriocin production. Bioinformatic analysis identified a gene cluster consisting of nine open reading frames likely involved in the production of and immunity to GarML. The garA gene encodes the bacteriocin precursor, garX a large transmembrane protein, garBCDE a putative immunity protein (garB) followed by an ATPase and two transmembrane proteins, and garFGH a putative ABC transporter complex. Functional genetic analysis revealed that deletion of garFGH had no effect on sensitivity to or production of GarML. In contrast, deletion of garBCDE or inactivation of garX resulted in high-level sensitivity to GarML and completely abolished production of active bacteriocin. Mass spectrometry of culture supernatants revealed that wild-type cultures contained the mature circular form as well as the linear forms of the bacteriocin, both with and without the three-amino-acid leader sequence, while bacteriocin-negative mutants contained only the linear forms. These results indicate that cleavage of the leader peptide precedes circularization and is likely performed by a functional entity separate from the GarML gene cluster. To our knowledge, this is the first conclusive evidence for these processes being separated in time. Loss of immunity and antimicrobial activity in addition to our inability to detect the circular bacteriocin in the ΔgarBCDE and garXpCG47 mutants demonstrate that both these units are indispensable for GarML biosynthesis as well as immunity. Furthermore, the results indicate that these genes are implicated in the circularization of the bacteriocin and that their functions are probably interlinked.
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