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Naturally selected rilpivirine-resistant HIV-1 variants by host cellular immunity.

Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Murakoshi, Hayato; Hachiya, Atsuko; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Chikata, Takayuki; Ode, Hirotaka; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Sugiura, Wataru; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Oka, Shinichi.
Clin Infect Dis; 57(7): 1051-5, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23797286

BACKGROUND:

Rilpivirine is listed as an alternative key drug in current antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines. E138G/A/K in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are rilpivirine resistance-associated mutations and can be identified in a few ART-naive patients, although at low frequency. The 138th position in HIV-1 RT is located in one of the putative epitopes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*18-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). CTL-mediated immune pressure selects escape mutations within the CTL epitope. Here we tested whether E138G/A/K could be selected by HLA-B*18-restricted CTLs.

METHODS:

The amino acid variation at the 138th position was compared between ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients with and without HLA-B*18. The optimal epitope containing the 138th position was determined and the impact of E138G/A/K on CTL response was analyzed by epitope-specific CTLs. The effect of E138G/A/K on drug susceptibility was determined by constructing recombinant HIV-1 variants.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of E138G/A/K was 21% and 0.37% in 19 and 1088 patients with and without HLA-B*18, respectively (odds ratio, 72.3; P = 4.9 × 10(-25)). The CTL response was completely abolished by the substitution of E138G/A/K in the epitope peptide. E138G/A/K conferred 5.1-, 7.1-, and 2.7-fold resistance to rilpivirine, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

E138G/A/K can be selected by HLA-B*18-restricted CTLs and confer significant rilpivirine resistance. We recommend drug resistance testing before the introduction of rilpivirine-based ART in HLA-B*18-positive patients.
Selo DaSilva