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Acute and chronic effects of bupivacaine on muscle energetics during contraction in vivo: a modular metabolic control analysis.

Arsac, Laurent M; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine; Miraux, Sylvain; Deschodt-Arsac, Veronique; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Thiaudiere, Eric; Diolez, Philippe.
Biochem J; 444(2): 315-21, 2012 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22390862
Bupivacaine is a widely used anaesthetic injected locally in clinical practice for short-term neurotransmission blockade. However, persistent side effects on mitochondrial integrity have been demonstrated in muscle parts surrounding the injection site. We use the precise language of metabolic control analysis in the present study to describe in vivo consequences of bupivacaine injection on muscle energetics during contraction. We define a model system of muscle energy metabolism in rats with a sciatic nerve catheter that consists of two modules of reactions, ATP/PCr (phosphocreatine) supply and ATP/PCr demand, linked by the common intermediate PCr detected in vivo by (31)P-MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Measured system variables were [PCr] (intermediate) and contraction (flux). We first applied regulation analysis to quantify acute effects of bupivacaine. After bupivacaine injection, contraction decreased by 15.7% and, concomitantly, [PCr] increased by 11.2%. The regulation analysis quantified that demand was in fact directly inhibited by bupivacaine (-21.3%), causing an increase in PCr. This increase in PCr indirectly reduced mitochondrial activity (-22.4%). Globally, the decrease in contractions was almost fully explained by inhibition of demand (-17.0%) without significant effect through energy supply. Finally we applied elasticity analysis to quantify chronic effects of bupivacaine iterative injections. The absence of a difference in elasticities obtained in treated rats when compared with healthy control rats clearly shows the absence of dysfunction in energetic control of muscle contraction energetics. The present study constitutes the first and direct evidence that bupivacaine myotoxicity is compromised by other factors during contraction in vivo, and illustrates the interest of modular approaches to appreciate simple rules governing bioenergetic systems when affected by drugs.
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