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Molecular pathways: osteoclast-dependent and osteoclast-independent roles of the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway in tumorigenesis and metastasis.

Dougall, William C.
Clin Cancer Res; 18(2): 326-35, 2012 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22031096
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a TNF ligand superfamily member that is essential for the formation, activation, and function of osteoclasts. RANKL functions via its cognate receptor RANK, and it is inhibited by the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). In skeletal metastases, the ratio of RANKL to OPG is upregulated, which leads to increased osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. These changes in the bone microenvironment not only compromise the structural integrity of bone, leading to severe clinical morbidities, but have also been implicated in establishment of de novo bone metastasis and the progression of existing skeletal tumors. Evaluation of RANKL inhibitors, including the fully human anti-RANKL antibody denosumab, in patients with cancer has shown reductions in tumor-induced bone resorption activity and successful management of skeletal complications of bone metastases. RANKL also functions as a major paracrine effector of the mitogenic action of progesterone in mouse mammary epithelium, and it has a role in ovarian hormone-dependent expansion and regenerative potential of mammary stem cells. RANKL inhibition attenuates mammary tumorigenesis and pulmonary metastases in mouse models. These data suggest that the contribution of progesterone to increased mammary cancer incidence is mediated, at least in part, by RANKL-dependent changes in the mammary epithelium; RANKL also directly promotes distant metastases. In summary, the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of RANKL inhibition can occur by at least 2 distinct mechanisms, one in the bone via osteoclast-dependent effects, and the second via direct effects on the tumor cells of various origins and/or mammary epithelium.
Selo DaSilva