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Stage-specific pathways of Leishmania infantum chagasi entry and phagosome maturation in macrophages.

Rodríguez, Nilda E; Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Allen, Lee-Ann H; Wilson, Mary E.
PLoS One; 6(4): e19000, 2011 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21552562
The life stages of Leishmania spp. include the infectious promastigote and the replicative intracellular amastigote. Each stage is phagocytosed by macrophages during the parasite life cycle. We previously showed that caveolae, a subset of cholesterol-rich membrane lipid rafts, facilitate uptake and intracellular survival of virulent promastigotes by macrophages, at least in part, by delaying parasitophorous vacuole (PV)-lysosome fusion. We hypothesized that amastigotes and promastigotes would differ in their route of macrophage entry and mechanism of PV maturation. Indeed, transient disruption of macrophage lipid rafts decreased the entry of promastigotes, but not amastigotes, into macrophages (P<0.001). Promastigote-containing PVs were positive for caveolin-1, and co-localized transiently with EEA-1 and Rab5 at 5 minutes. Amastigote-generated PVs lacked caveolin-1 but retained Rab5 and EEA-1 for at least 30 minutes or 2 hours, respectively. Coinciding with their conversion into amastigotes, the number of promastigote PVs positive for LAMP-1 increased from 20% at 1 hour, to 46% by 24 hours, (P<0.001, Chi square). In contrast, more than 80% of amastigote-initiated PVs were LAMP-1+ at both 1 and 24 hours. Furthermore, lipid raft disruption increased LAMP-1 recruitment to promastigote, but not to amastigote-containing compartments. Overall, our data showed that promastigotes enter macrophages through cholesterol-rich domains like caveolae to delay fusion with lysosomes. In contrast, amastigotes enter through a non-caveolae pathway, and their PVs rapidly fuse with late endosomes but prolong their association with early endosome markers. These results suggest a model in which promastigotes and amastigotes use different mechanisms to enter macrophages, modulate the kinetics of phagosome maturation, and facilitate their intracellular survival.
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