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Spermatogonial stem cells, infertility and testicular cancer.

Singh, Shree Ram; Burnicka-Turek, Ozanna; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X.
J Cell Mol Med; 15(3): 468-83, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21155977
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from an individual to the next generation. SSCs play critical roles in understanding the basic reproductive biology of gametes and treatments of human infertility. SSCs not only maintain normal spermatogenesis, but also sustain fertility by critically balancing both SSC self-renewal and differentiation. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression within the SSC as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the niche. Increased SSCs self-renewal at the expense of differentiation result in germ cell tumours, on the other hand, higher differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can result in male sterility. Testicular germ cell cancers are the most frequent cancers among young men in industrialized countries. However, understanding the pathogenesis of testis cancer has been difficult because it is formed during foetal development. Recent studies suggest that SSCs can be reprogrammed to become embryonic stem (ES)-like cells to acquire pluripotency. In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in SSCs biology and role of SSC in testicular cancer. We believe that studying the biology of SSCs will not only provide better understanding of stem cell regulation in the testis, but eventually will also be a novel target for male infertility and testicular cancers.
Selo DaSilva