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T regulatory cells in xenotransplantation.

Muller, Yannick D; Golshayan, Déla; Ehirchiou, Driss; Wekerle, Thomas; Seebach, Jörg D; Bühler, Leo H.
Xenotransplantation; 16(3): 121-8, 2009 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19566651
The role of T regulatory cells (Treg) in the induction and maintenance of allograft tolerance is being studied to a great extent. In contrast, little is known on their potential to prevent graft rejection in the field of xenotransplantation, where acute vascular rejection mediated by cellular and humoral mechanisms and thrombotic microangiopathy still prevents long-term graft survival. In this regard, the induction of donor-specific tolerance through isolation and expansion of xenoantigen-specific recipient Treg is currently becoming a focus of interest. This review will summarize the present knowledge concerning Treg and their potential use in xenotransplantation describing in particular CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, CD8(+)CD28(-) Treg, double negative CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, and natural killer Treg. Although only studied in vitro so far, human CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg is currently the best characterized subpopulation of regulatory cells in xenotransplantation. CD8(+)CD28(-) Treg and double negative CD4(-)CD8(-) Treg also seem to be implicated in tolerance maintenance of xenografts. Finally, one study revealing a role for natural killer CD4(+)Valpha14(+) Treg in the prolongation of xenograft survival needs further confirmation. To our opinion, CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg are a promising candidate to protect xenografts. In contrast to cadaveric allotransplantation, the donor is known prior to xenotransplantation. This advantage allows the expansion of recipient Treg in a xenoantigen specific manner before transplantation.
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