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Immunoregulatory mechanisms and CD4-CD8- (double negative) T cell subpopulations in human cutaneous leishmaniasis: a balancing act between protection and pathology.

Gollob, Kenneth J; Antonelli, Lis R V; Faria, Daniela R; Keesen, Tatjana S L; Dutra, Walderez O.
Int Immunopharmacol; 8(10): 1338-43, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18687296
Cellular immune responses directed against protozoan parasites are key for controlling pathogen replication and disease resolution. However, an uncontrolled, or improperly controlled, response can be deleterious to the host in terms of both allowing for the establishment of pathology, as well as less effective establishment of memory responses. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the infection with Leishmania spp. following a bite from the sandfly, the natural vector of this disease. Tens of millions worldwide are currently infected with Leishmania and no effective vaccines have been developed to date. In the face of the complexity presented by the interaction between a host (humans) with the parasite, Leishmania, and the fact that this parasite is inoculated by another complex, biologically active, vector, the sandfly, it is clearly important to study the immunoregulatory mechanisms that are induced in humans naturally infected by this parasite if we hope to develop effective vaccines and immunotherapeutic treatments in the future. Our laboratory has focused over the years on the study of the local and systemic T cell response during the first episode of cutaneous leishmaniasis suffered by individuals before they undergo antimony treatment. The goal of this review is to briefly outline our findings with hopes of putting our most recent studies concerning the dichotomy between alpha/beta TCR and gamma/delta TCR expressing, CD4-CD8- (double negative-DN) T cells in the context of a balanced immune response against Leishmania and to discuss the implications of these findings toward our understanding of human leishmaniasis.
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