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Population pharmacokinetics of milrinone in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergoing stage I reconstruction.

Zuppa, Athena F; Nicolson, Susan C; Adamson, Peter C; Wernovsky, Gil; Mondick, John T; Burnham, Nancy; Hoffman, Timothy M; Gaynor, J William; Davis, Lauren A; Greeley, William J; Spray, Thomas L; Barrett, Jeffrey S.
Anesth Analg; 102(4): 1062-9, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16551899
We performed a blinded, randomized pharmacokinetic study of milrinone in 16 neonates with hypoplastic left heart undergoing stage I reconstruction to determine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass and modified ultrafiltration on drug disposition and to define the drug exposure during a continuous IV infusion of drug postoperatively. Neonates received an initial dose of either a 100 or 250 microg/kg of milrinone into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit at the start of rewarming. Postoperatively, milrinone was infused to clinical needs. A mixed-effect modeling approach was used to characterize milrinone pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass, modified ultrafiltration, and postoperatively using the NONMEM algorithm. All patients in this study demonstrated a modified ultrafiltration concentrating effect that occurred despite a modified ultrafiltration drug clearance of 3.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1). The infants in this study demonstrated an impaired renal clearance during the immediate postoperative period. A constant infusion of 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) resulted in drug accumulation during the initial 12 h of drug administration. Postoperatively, milrinone clearance was significantly impaired (0.4 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), improved by the 12th postoperative hour, and approached steady-state clearance (2.6 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) by postoperative day 4. In the postoperative setting of markedly impaired renal function, an infusion rate of 0.2 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) should be considered.
Selo DaSilva