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Tuberculosis decline in populations affected by HIV: a retrospective study of 12 countries in the WHO African Region.

Dye, Christopher; Williams, Brian G.
Bull World Health Organ; 97(6): 405-414, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | Jun 2019 | ID: mdl-31210678
Resumo: Objective: To investigate which of the World Health Organization recommended methods for tuberculosis control have had the greatest effect on case incidence in 12 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region that carry high burdens of tuberculosis linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods: We obtained epidemiological surveillance, survey and treatment data on HIV and tuberculosis for the years 2003 to 2016. We used statistical models to examine the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy in reducing the incidence of tuberculosis among people living with HIV. We also investigated the role of tuberculosis case detection and treatment in preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission and consequently reducing tuberculosis incidence. Findings: Between 2003 and 2016, ART provision was associated with the decline of tuberculosis in each country, and with differences in tuberculosis decline between countries. Inferring that ART was a cause of tuberculosis decline, ART prevented 1.88 million (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.65 to 2.11) tuberculosis cases in people living with HIV, or 15.7% (95% CI: 13.8 to 17.6) of the 11.96 million HIV-positive tuberculosis cases expected. Population coverage of isoniazid preventive therapy was too low (average 1.0% of persons eligible) to have a major effect on tuberculosis decline, and improvements in tuberculosis detection and treatment were either weakly associated or not significantly associated with tuberculosis decline. Conclusion: ART provision is associated with tuberculosis decline in these 12 countries. ART should remain central to tuberculosis control where rates of tuberculosis-HIV coinfection are high, but renewed efforts to treat tuberculosis are needed.