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The effect of preoperative penicillin allergy testing on perioperative non-beta-lactam antibiotic use: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reilly, Clifford A; Backer, Grant; Basta, Danielle; Riblet, Natalie B V; Hofley, Pamela M; Gallagher, Megan C.
Allergy Asthma Proc; 39(6): 420-429, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | Nov 2018 | ID: mdl-30401320
Resumo: Background: The majority of patients for elective surgery and with a history of penicillin allergy are placed on alternative prophylactic antibiotic therapies, which have been associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, self-reporting of penicillin allergy alone may overestimate the prevalence of penicillin allergy in the population. Objective: To assess the effects of preoperative antibiotic allergy testing protocols in reducing the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Methods: We searched medical literature data bases through July of 2018. Two reviewers independently extracted data from published studies and assessed the risk of bias in cohort studies by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We collected information related to study design, methodology, demographics, interventions, and outcomes. We pooled odds ratios for the rate of prescribing non-beta-lactam antibiotics by using a fixed-effects model. Results: Of 905 citations screened for eligibility, nine studies met inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis. Studies reported that the rates of non-beta-lactam use after preoperative skin testing ranged from 6 to 30%. In addition, four of the nine studies had sufficient control data to be included in a meta-analysis. These four studies found that preoperative testing protocols significantly decreased the rates of prescribing non-beta-lactam antibiotics compared with usual care (odds ratio 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 2.67-4.98]; p < 0.0001). Seven studies reported on adverse drug reactions after preoperative skin testing and found that the rate of such reactions was rare. Conclusion: Preoperative antibiotic allergy testing protocols seemed to be a safe and effective tool in reducing the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics during surgery.