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The Neurocircuitry of fluid satiation.

Ryan, Philip J.
Physiol Rep; 6(12): e13744, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | Jun 2018 | ID: mdl-29932494
Resumo: Fluid satiation, or quenching of thirst, is a critical homeostatic signal to stop drinking; however, its underlying neurocircuitry is not well characterized. Cutting-edge genetically encoded tools and techniques are now enabling researchers to pinpoint discrete neuronal populations that control fluid satiation, revealing that hindbrain regions, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, and parabrachial nucleus, primarily inhibit fluid intake. By contrast, forebrain regions such as the lamina terminalis, primarily stimulate thirst and fluid intake. One intriguing aspect of fluid satiation is that thirst is quenched tens of minutes before water reaches the circulation, and the amount of water ingested is accurately calibrated to match physiological needs. This suggests that 'preabsorptive' inputs from the oropharyngeal regions, esophagus or upper gastrointestinal tract anticipate the amount of fluid required to restore fluid homeostasis, and provide rapid signals to terminate drinking once this amount has been consumed. It is likely that preabsorptive signals are carried via the vagal nerve to the hindbrain. In this review, we explore our current understanding of the fluid satiation neurocircuitry, its inputs and outputs, and its interconnections within the brain, with a focus on recent studies of the hindbrain, particularly the parabrachial nucleus.