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New structural classes of antituberculosis agents.

Kumar, Vajinder; Patel, Sanjay; Jain, Rahul.
Med Res Rev; 38(2): 684-740, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | 2018 | ID: mdl-28598559
Resumo: Tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest diseases is shattering the health and socioeconomic status of the society. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains has provided unprecedented lethal character to TB. The development of MDR and XDR strains of TB results in more deaths, longer duration of therapy, and appearance of the disease in the immunocompromised patients. Because of the development of rapid resistance by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, researchers are confronted with serious challenges in combating TB. For instance, the need for potency and specificity in therapeutic agents approaching clinics, and the increasing demand of low toxicity due to long duration of treatment. Recently, it is proposed that such challenges could be addressed by a shift from contemporary or known classes of drugs to new scaffold-containing or entirely new structural classes of drugs that possibly act on the previously unknown targets, resulting in possibly less instances of resistance development. The exploitation of advances made in the biology of TB in the last and present decades have created opportunities to discover a large number of new structural classes that specifically targets TB by molecular mechanism of action(s) unknown earlier. We have earlier reviewed new structural classes of anti-TB agents up to year 2005. This review covers literature reports of the subsequent 10 years on the discovery of new structural classes of synthetic anti-TB agents. Due to the availability of large number of research reports, we have divided new compounds in 38 structural classes, 368 structures, and 307 references.