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Effect of mouthguards on impact to the craniomandibular complex.

Tanaka, Yuto; Tsugawa, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Yoshinobu.
Dent Traumatol; 33(1): 51-56, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | 2017 | ID: mdl-27207582
Resumo: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing a mouthguard and teeth-clenching on impact to the head and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during a blow to the jaw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A custom-made mouthguard was fabricated for five participants. A 4.1-N impact load was applied to the chin with a pendulum. Two acceleration sensors were attached to the forehead and left TMJ. The amplitudes and durations of the accelerations were obtained under five conditions: mouth-open without mouthguard; light teeth-clenching without mouthguard; maximum voluntary clenching (MVC) without mouthguard; mouth-open with mouthguard and MVC with mouthguard. RESULTS: Wearing a mouthguard led to significant decreases in the amplitude (mouth-open with mouthguard vs mouth-open without mouthguard, P = 0.035 at forehead, P = 0.022 at TMJ) and duration (mouth-open with mouthguard vs mouth-open without mouthguard, P = 0.043 at forehead, not significant at TMJ). Similarly, teeth-clenching caused significant decreases in the amplitude (mouth-open without mouthguard vs MVC without mouthguard, P = 0.024 at forehead, P = 0.025 at TMJ) and duration (mouth-open without mouthguard vs MVC without mouthguard, P = 0.033 at forehead, not significant at TMJ). Furthermore, wearing a mouthguard in itself provided an impact reduction effect similar to the combination of teeth-clenching and wearing a mouthguard. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing a mouthguard and/or teeth-clenching reduced the impact to the head and TMJ during a blow to the jaw. However, it should be noted that the findings are the results from a small impact load to the jaw.