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Environmental Cadmium Enhances Lung Injury by Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Hu, Xin; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Youri; Fernandes, Jolyn; Smith, M Ryan; Jung, Yu-Jin; Orr, Michael; Kang, Sang-Moo; Jones, Dean P; Go, Young-Mi.
Am J Pathol; 189(8): 1513-1525, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108100
Cadmium (Cd) is a naturally occurring environmental toxicant that disrupts mitochondrial function at occupational exposure levels. The impacts of Cd exposure at low levels through dietary intake remain largely uncharacterized. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe morbidity, which can require hospitalization and result in death in young children and elderly populations. The impacts of environmental Cd exposure on the severity of RSV disease are unknown. Herein, we used a mouse model to examine whether Cd pre-exposure at a level of dietary intake potentiates pulmonary inflammation on subsequent infection with RSV. Mice were given Cd or saline in drinking water for 28 days. Subsets of these mice were infected with RSV at 5 days before the end of the study. Cd pre-exposure caused relatively subtle changes in lung; however, it elevated the IL-4 level and altered metabolites associated with fatty acid metabolism. After RSV infection, mice pre-exposed to Cd had elevated lung RSV titer and increased inflammation, as measured by histopathology, immune cell infiltration, cytokines, and chemokines. RSV infection after Cd pre-exposure also caused widespread perturbation in metabolism of glycerophospholipids and amino acids (Trp, Met, and Cys, branched-chain amino acids), as well as carnitine shuttle associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. The results show that Cd burden by dietary intake potentiates RSV infection and severe disease with associated mitochondrial metabolic disruption.
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