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Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Retrieved from GNSS-R and from Passive L-Band Radiometry at the Valencia Anchor Station.

Yin, Cong; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Martin-Neira, Manuel; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Yang, Lei; Navarro-Camba, Enrique A; Egido, Alejandro; Mollfulleda, Antonio; Li, Weiqiang; Cao, Yunchang; Zhu, Bin; Yang, Dongkai.
Sensors (Basel); 19(8)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013584
In this paper, the SOMOSTA (Soil Moisture Monitoring Station) experiment on the intercomparison of soil moisture monitoring from Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signals and passive L-band microwave radiometer observations at the Valencia Anchor Station is introduced. The GNSS-R instrument has an up-looking antenna for receiving direct signals from satellites, and a dual-pol down-looking antenna for receiving LHCP (left-hand circular polarization) and RHCP (right-hand circular polarization) reflected signals from the soil surface. Data were collected from the three different antennas through the two channels of Oceanpal GNSS-R receiver and, in addition, calibration was performed to reduce the impact from the differing channels. Reflectivity was thus measured, and soil moisture could be retrieved. The ESA (European Space Agency)-funded ELBARA-II (ESA L Band Radiometer II) is an L-band radiometer with two channels with 11 MHz bandwidth and respective center frequencies of 1407.5 MHz and 1419.5 MHz. The ELBARAII antenna is a large dual-mode Picket horn that is 1.4 m wide, with a length of 2.7 m with -3 dB full beam width of 12° (±6° around the antenna main direction) and a gain of 23.5 dB. By comparing GNSS-R and ELBARA-II radiometer data, a high correlation was found between the LHCP reflectivity measured by GNSS-R and the horizontal/vertical reflectivity from the radiometer (with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.83 to 0.91). Neural net fitting was used for GNSS-R soil moisture inversion, and the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) was 0.014 m3/m3. The determination coefficient between the retrieved soil moisture and in situ measurements was R2 = 0.90 for Oceanpal and R2 = 0.65 for Elbara II, and the ubRMSE (Unbiased RMSE) were 0.0128 and 0.0734 respectively. The soil moisture retrievals by both L-band remote sensing methods show good agreement with each other, and their mutual correspondence with in-situ measurements and with rainfall was also good.
Selo DaSilva