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Genomic and transcriptomic investigations of the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity.

Gao, Wei; Sun, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Chen, Luonan; Li, Hong; Fu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Kai; Xu, Wei; Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Jing; Xiang, Xue-Yan; Zhou, Long; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Si; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Chen, Hong-Man; Zhang, Guojie; Hillis, David M; Ji, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Che, Jing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 116(9): 3646-3655, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808754
Viviparous (live-bearing) vertebrates have evolved repeatedly within otherwise oviparous (egg-laying) clades. Over two-thirds of these changes in vertebrate reproductive parity mode happened in squamate reptiles, where the transition has happened between 98 and 129 times. The transition from oviparity to viviparity requires numerous physiological, morphological, and immunological changes to the female reproductive tract, including eggshell reduction, delayed oviposition, placental development for supply of water and nutrition to the embryo by the mother, enhanced gas exchange, and suppression of maternal immune rejection of the embryo. We performed genomic and transcriptomic analyses of a closely related oviparous-viviparous pair of lizards (Phrynocephalus przewalskii and Phrynocephalus vlangalii) to examine these transitions. Expression patterns of maternal oviduct through reproductive development of the egg and embryo differ markedly between the two species. We found changes in expression patterns of appropriate genes that account for each of the major aspects of the oviparity to viviparity transition. In addition, we compared the gene sequences in transcriptomes of four oviparous-viviparous pairs of lizards in different genera (Phrynocephalus, Eremias, Scincella, and Sphenomorphus) to look for possible gene convergence at the sequence level. We discovered low levels of convergence in both amino acid replacement and evolutionary rate shift. This suggests that most of the changes that produce the oviparity-viviparity transition are changes in gene expression, so occasional reversals to oviparity from viviparity may not be as difficult to achieve as has been previously suggested.
Selo DaSilva