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Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 releases epigenetic silencing of HIV-1 replication by displacing the polycomb repressive complex 2 from binding to the LTR promoter.

Qu, Di; Sun, Wei-Wei; Li, Li; Ma, Li; Sun, Li; Jin, Xia; Li, Taisheng; Hou, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua.
Nucleic Acids Res; 47(6): 3013-3027, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788509
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may either repress or activate HIV-1 replication and latency; however, specific mechanisms for their action are not always clear. In HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells, we performed RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and discovered an up-regulation of MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), an lncRNA previously described in cancer cells that associate with cancer pathogenesis. Moreover, we found that MALAT1 promoted HIV-1 transcription and infection, as its knockdown by CRISPR/Cas9 markedly reduced the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven gene transcription and viral replication. Mechanistically, through an association with chromatin modulator polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), MALAT1 detached the core component enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) from binding with HIV-1 LTR promoter, and thus removed PRC2 complex-mediated methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and relieved epigenetic silencing of HIV-1 transcription. Moreover, the reactivation of HIV-1 stimulated with latency reversal agents (LRAs) induced MALAT1 expression in latently infected cells. Successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was accompanied by significantly diminished MALAT1 expression in patients, suggesting a positive correlation of MALAT1 expression with HIV-1 replication. Our data have identified MALAT1 as a promoter of HIV-1 transcription, and suggested that MALAT1 may be targeted for the development of new therapeutics.
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