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Quantification of Hydrochlorothiazide and Ramipril/Ramiprilate in Blood Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Central Nervous System Adverse Effects.

Sigaroudi, Ali; Kinzig, Martina; Wahl, Oliver; Stelzer, Christoph; Schroeter, Michael; Fuhr, Uwe; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sörgel, Fritz.
Pharmacology; 102(3-4): 133-137, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982257


A drug must reach the central nervous system (CNS) in order to directly cause CNS adverse effects (AEs). Our current study addressed the pharmacokinetic (PK) background of the assumption that CNS concentrations of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and ramiprilate may directly cause CNS AEs such as headache and drowsiness.


In neurological patients, paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were withdrawn simultaneously. Some of them were treated with HCT (n = 15, daily chronic doses 7.5-25 mg) or ramipril (n = 9, 2.5-10 mg). Total concentrations of HCT and ramiprilate were quantified in these samples. To this end, sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed.


CSF reached 4.1% (interquartile ranges 2.5-5%) of total serum concentrations for HCT and 2.3% (1.7-5.7%) for ramiprilate, corresponding to about 11.3% and 5.5% of respective unbound serum concentrations.


The PK/Pharmacodynamic characteristics of HCT and ramiprilate in the CNS are unknown. However, since the CSF levels of these agents, both free and bound, were much lower than the corresponding concentrations in serum, it is unlikely that the observed CNS AEs are mediated primarily via direct effects in the brain.
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